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Music Categories Based On Instrumentation


In addition to the aforementioned musical subgenres, music can also be categorised based on instrumentation.

The music sung by voices alone, also known as “a cappella”
A cappella is a style of vocal music in which only the singer’s voice is used. It’s possible to sing solo or as part of a choir. It is also possible to perform the instrumentation with the voice, it is what is known as “beatbox,” which generally includes percussion, although some people are capable of imitating other instruments such as the guitar or saxophone. beatboxing.

Instrumental music is another option.
Instrumental music, as the name implies, is composed solely of instruments, with no vocals. You can choose between two types of music: an orchestral symphony or electronic music composed solely of electronic instruments. Movies or karaoke can use it.

However, the line between instrumental and non-instrumental music is blurred. Some people’s voices are digitised so that they sound like an instrument, for example.

Purpose
In addition to learning and identifying different characteristic timbres in music according to their context, one of the main goals of this unit is for students to know and experience the sound of various objects and musical instruments through manipulation and play.

Students should be able to use this knowledge to improve their musical performance (vocal and instrumental) as well as their own creative work, such as manipulating percussion instruments to produce different sounds. As opposed to other subjects such as visual arts, history and geography, social sciences, and language and communication, several of the proposed activities strengthen integration.

Using the phonetic exercise of the spoken voice and its relationship to sounds and music, this latter approach proposes exploring the possibilities offered. Additionally, the unit aims to help students learn how to move their bodies in response to music, as well as how to experiment with different sounds on their own bodies and the significance of silence in music.

The creation of simple rhythmic accompaniments and ostinati in singing and playing instruments serves an important purpose: it allows students to continue experimenting with their own spellings or those suggested by the teacher. When it comes to listening, it’s best to expose children to short and carefully chosen pieces of contemporary music from the written tradition. It also serves other purposes, such as encouraging users to move their bodies in response to music, experimenting with different sounds using only their bodies, and learning the value of silence in music. The creation of simple rhythmic accompaniments and ostinati in singing and playing instruments serves an important purpose: it allows students to continue experimenting with their own spellings or those suggested by the teacher. When it comes to listening, it’s best to expose children to short and carefully chosen pieces of contemporary music from the written tradition.

Additionally, the unit aims to help students learn how to move their bodies in response to music, as well as how to experiment with different sounds on their own bodies and the significance of silence in music. The creation of simple rhythmic accompaniments and ostinati in singing and playing instruments serves an important purpose: it allows students to continue experimenting with their own spellings or those suggested by the teacher. When it comes to listening, it’s best to expose children to short and carefully chosen pieces of contemporary music from the written tradition.

An important purpose of singing and playing instruments is to create ostinati, which allows students to experiment with their own spellings or those suggested by the teacher. When it comes to listening, it’s best to expose children to short and carefully chosen pieces of contemporary music from the written tradition.

The creation of simple rhythmic accompaniments and ostinati in singing and playing instruments serves an important purpose: it allows students to continue experimenting with their own spellings or those suggested by the teacher. When it comes to listening, it’s best to expose children to short and carefully chosen pieces of contemporary music from the written tradition.

Music and important events

Music and important events in our lives are inextricably linked!

In the video I ask Lex Bohlmeijer whether music acts as a conductor of emotion. He can relate to that!

There is no event in our lives that we do not associate with emotion. And certainly not the events that impress us. Strong emotions are often linked to important events such as birth, the love of your life and death. Music can evoke and even enhance that feeling of that important moment.

Our life starts with mom or dad singing us to sleep. Birthdays, Sinterklaas , Christmas, passion time and spring, we all know the songs that mark special moments and therefore special feelings. What would those special moments be without music?

Christmas songs trigger you

It’s the songs that stir up our memories of the time around Christmas. And act on our emotions.

For some, this is a nice experience and therefore provides a good perspective for approaching holidays. For another, Christmas music evokes a less enjoyable time during dark days. We notice one association between music and events when we hear the first Christmas song of the year. Its sounds make us long for an approaching Christmas. Or not, but whatever reaction, it is triggered by us by the specific Christmas songs. 

Music touches you. Or not!

Musician Erik Vlasblom is teacher, pianist, composer and musical accompanist of Dana Winner, Seth Gaaikema, Toon Hermans and Robert Long. He can look back on years of knowledge across a broad musical spectrum. 

In this search for what exactly music is, we will examine what predominates in an expert like Vlasblom. His statement: music either touches you or it doesn’t!

Surprisingly enough, Vlasblom believes that being deaf in itself is not an obstacle to being able to make music. After all, when Ludwig van Beethoven became deaf at a later age, he could still compose. That is, composing music in his head and putting it on paper so that musicians could perform it. And Mozart proved to be able to write down the music he had in his head flawlessly in one go. And…classical music turns out to be sexy!

Meanwhile, we can also recognize that music is an art form in which sounds are produced in a certain rhythm.

That’s one definition.

Effects of music on humans!

Sounds form melodies that surround us every day. A whole lifetime. It’s so common that most of the time you don’t even notice. But it does everything to us.

The popular neuropsychologist Erik Scherder finds so much scientific evidence of how positively supportive this music would be for body and mind that he shouts from the rooftops to listen to it. Above all, he recommends singing and dancing together. He sees this as part of a healthy lifestyle.

Further benefits he mentions:

  • rhythm encourages movement
  • singing stimulates the brain
  • making music stimulates our knowledge and coordination functions
  • listening to music relieves pain

Why do you have a particular preference for a particular type of music? You like one song and not the other (which is very similar)? What determines that you like to hear a piece of music? 

There are demands that you (unconsciously) place on music that you love. 

Something new and something old

First of all, it must be recognizable and at the same time contain something new. Something new with something old. That means you must have heard similar music, but also be able to be surprised by something new in it.

This explains that the music taste of our parents is usually not far from what we find beautiful ourselves. And that we have a preference for certain bands, composers or musical styles. And often feel emotionally connected to that throughout our lives. We tend to hold on to that.

This manifests itself in having a favorite channel, being a fan of a band, or collecting all the work of a composer. 

Characteristics of music

So many different reactions: one approaches it technically, the other lets his or her heart speak. Another listens to what sounds evoke. This means that songs or musical works do not seem to stand alone. Apparently it stands for something. As we saw earlier, we give meaning to this musical art.

It evokes a memory or experience. Perhaps more important than that particular event, it seems to evoke an emotion or feeling in the human being. That makes it something magical. For both the music listener and musician.

A concrete way to describe something is by looking for what characterizes something. By doing so, the value and meaning we give to it becomes clearer.

These are characteristics of music:

it is abstract: we cannot grasp it, or carry it under our arm, like other art forms, for example a painting or statue.

we need a ‘ device ‘ to hear it: an MP-3 player, a streaming or download facility, the human voice, or a musical instrument.

the music is only there at the moment itself

making music oneself hardly permits other brain functions. In other words, other activities or thoughts are (almost) impossible.

it has a socializing, or connecting effect. Dance, sing and mourn together. Music seems to be able to express our emotions better than words.

Magic calls for further discovery!

With this article I want to show and hear how important music is for people. It supports important events in our lives. It offers us comfort in heartbreak. Listening and making music supports a healthy life.

But so much remains hidden. Why can it affect us so much? Can we do without music? How is it possible that we experience the same music differently every time?

A journey of discovery through music can go on indefinitely.

Live life to the full with music and questions of life! 

As mysterious music is to us, so mysterious is our life.

You can also investigate life in the form of your life questions. If you immerse yourself in music, you can enjoy it much more. Immerse yourself in what keeps you busy in life and you can enjoy life more. 

Balance between simplicity and complex

A third requirement we place on a song we love is that it should have a good balance between simplicity and complexity. If a composition or song is too simple, we reject it.

That is, for example, the moment that a person no longer likes children’s songs from a certain age. Too simple.

We experience song too complex when there are too many new elements in the music. For example, if you like to listen to André Hazes, you may experience a polyphonic choir as too complex.

For example, in genres you never listen to, many sounds, rhythms, or instruments occur that you don’t hear every day. We tend to reject that. It simply does not meet our requirement of a balance between simplicity and complexity. 

your favorite song has something recognizable as well as something unknown

For example, a band like The Beatles offers recognition by using the same voices, instruments and the structure of the song. For example, what is new is in the lyrics, melody and the zeitgeist in which the song is written.

This also explains the reaction of people who can react violently when they hear a genre that they have not often had in their lives. Or a cover that would rape the original.

“Oooooh, please turn it off, it’s unheard of!” The emotion resonates in it.

Gospel,Loud Music And Jazz

Gospel

Gospel music, also known as evangelical music or religious music, is a distinct genre that developed in African-American churches during the 18th and 19th centuries, peaking in the 1930s when it was at its height.

According to the Gospel Music Foundation, Gospel Music takes its inspiration from Christianity and its conception, interpretation, and meaning can vary depending on the culture or social environment in which it is performed, serving different purposes. These purposes can range from the solely aesthetic pleasure of listening to a religious or ceremonial song, to the same commercial and economic product that is prepared and packaged for sale in the Music Stores of music.

Named after the word “Godspel,” which means “Word of God” in English, the genre makes frequent and varied allusions to the Gospels and the same work of Jesus Christ, reflecting the Christian values.

Gospel music’s most distinguishing feature is its heavy reliance on choirs, many of which feature predominantly black singers. A cappella singing is done without the use of any instruments, although rhythmic tapping and clapping often accompany it.

Artists like George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, and William Howard Doane composed and developed the first gospel themes…

Gospel Blues emerged in the 1990s as a unique fusion of blues and gospel music, combining the blues guitar with lyrics that were clearly evangelical.

Last but not least, the gospel spreads throughout the world and reaches various parts of Latin America, giving rise to the so-called “Latino Gospel,” which is interpreted in Hispanic churches and in the United States, with countries like Colombia, Argentina and also Spain standing out above all the others.

The sound of loud music

This is a fashion sense that emerged from the anti-social and anti-educational movements of the 1960s and 1970s.

The band Black Sabbath helped to build the foundations of heavy metal and the genre by drawing on the bluesy roots of primitive rock while also incorporating elements of heavy metal. Electric guitar distortion is common, electric bass and drums provide a strong rhythmic foundation, and falsetto is frequently used on vocals.

Jazz

As with blues, jazz is an American musical genre born out of the country’s cultural heritage. It is a cornerstone of American popular music.

Jazz began as a style of music meant to be danced to. Eventually, these dance characteristics began to fade, and Jazz began to evolve towards improvisation, which was to become its most distinctive feature and central accusation.

There have been numerous Jazz subgenres over the years, including Hot Jazz (styles before 1930), Swing, Bebop (orchestral groups smaller than Swing), Cool Jazz with classical influences, Hard Bop, Free Jazz, and even 80s Acid Jazz.

Even though the compositions in avant-garde jazz are more complex than those in free jazz, they still rely heavily on improvisations. The realisation can be so good that it’s difficult to tell when it’s purely improvised.

These three genre of music is very amazing to hear! Enjoy listening these kind of musics too!

Flemish,Folk And Funk

Flemish

Its origin is Spanish and more specifically from the south of Spain (Andalusia) representing a cultural mix.

This musical genre is a total art in which cante (in flamenco the term cante or cantaor or cantaora is used), dance (to express the feeling that cante transmits to us) and flamenco or Spanish guitar, in which there are authentic virtuosos within flamenco.

Flamenco is world famous for being a musical genre typical of the southern region of Spain, more specifically Andalusia, and it is believed to have its roots in the 18th century.

Although flamenco is linked to the gypsy ethnic group, there are certain positions that locate its origin in the Flanders area, in the Netherlands, in the time of Carlos V, where flamenco is considered as its most popular language. Other theories suggest that the gypsies themselves were known as “flamingos.”

In the flamenco music scene, the so-called “Cante jondo” is distinguished by being the purest and most genuine flamenco air, with its hoarse voice and its characteristic sound of castanets, guitar and clapping.

In the 80s a young generation of flamenco musicians was born whose maximum influence comes from artists such as Camarón, Paco de Lucía, Morente…. Singers like José Mercé, El Cigala or Miguel Poveda among others….

Folk

Although it is true that in each country there is a traditional or popular music that characterizes its respective culture and folklore, Folk music is mainly related to American and British music, which has been preserved through oral tradition.

It is a simple and melodic sound that tells us about people’s things and their daily tasks. Many of the famous songs do not have a known author and have changed over the years.

One of the forerunners in the production of the first folk music songs was Oklahoma vocalist Woody Guthrie, who identified with the poorest population and distinguished himself against oppression and fascism.

Folk, really comes from English and refers to modern “folk” music.

Funk

Funk or funky music is a type of music whose origin dates back to the 1970s. Musicians of African American origin fused styles such as jazz, soul or other Latin to create this musical genre in which rhythm (drums and electric bass) is given much more prominence than melody.

Funk music refers to a type of music that originated in the 60s and was born as a fusion of Soul, R&B, Jazz and elements of Latin dance such as the mambo, giving rise to its own harmonious style.

The usual instruments of the Funk are the electric guitar, the electric bass, the Hammond organ and the drums, although wind elements such as the saxophone or trumpets can also appear.

In the 60s, the figure of “James Brown” stands out among all artists, also known as the Father of Funk, whose music created a whole world of influence around him, with the appearance of new artists and groups such as “Dyke and the Blazers ”and their hit“ Funky Broadway ”from 1967, or the group“ Archie Bel and The Drells ”and their song“ Tighten Up ”,“ The Meters ”or“ The Isley Brothers ”among others….

In the 70s, artists such as “Parliament”, “Funkadelic”, “Ohio Players” or “Average White Band” appeared, which was the first white funk band.

In the 80s, with the appearance of synthesizers and new electronic machines, some mythical instruments of funk began to disappear, such as the Hammond organ, which was replaced by new models such as the Yamaha Dx7. The rhythm of the sound was derived into more danceable rhythms, and quickly dissolved into what is called dance music or disco music, although it directly influenced hip-hop, which allowed it to continue to be present in some way in the decade of the ninety.

Cumbia,Disk And Electronics

Cumbia

Cumbia is a very popular musical style throughout Latin America, however, its origin dates back to Colombia and its rhythms are based on the rhythms of the Black Caribbean, mixing with Spanish rhythms and the styles of the area. The expression “Cumbia” may have its origin in the “Cumbe” or typical dance of Equatorial Guinea.

The great African influence is especially noticeable in the use of percussion and drums. The maracas and whistles are related to the indigenous style, and the voices and songs are influenced by Spanish lyric.

In the 1940s, like porro and vallenato, they began to spread from the coast to other parts of the country, mainly thanks to the talent of the artist “Lucho Bermúdez”. In the 1950s, however, the musical genre of cumbia achieved worldwide success and spread throughout Latin America, starting with Ecuador and Peru, then Mexico and Argentina, and finally, all the way to the rest of the continent.

Nicaragua is one of the countries in which cumbia has had a greater settlement, especially in the 50s and 60s by the artist “Gustavo Layton”.

Disk

Disco music is a type of music genre that appeared mostly in the United States around 1970. As with all other types of music, it was influenced by rhythms from other genres such as soul and funk, as well as rhythm and music. blues.

In areas where the music was played at night, instead of hiring a musical group, a DJ took care of the music and from there a musical style was born that has triumphed during the seventies, eighties, nineties and has been preserved to this day.

Undoubtedly the movie “Saturday Night Fever” clearly represents the disco spirit, where John Travolta appears and represents this type of music and the way to live it.

Electronics

Electronic music as a musical genre is the way of naming the different musical genres that use classical or acoustic musical instruments, and that accompany their music with electronic nuances, therefore, it has its origins together with the appearance of the first synthesizers (and of the Japanese of the 50s who fantasized about the production of electronic music), and that which was first remarked in the 80s – of the eighties by the hand of artists such as the “Juan Atkins” or “Underground Resistance”

This music is generated as a whole in a virtual way, since the 80s Germany has taken over as the greatest exponent of the musical production of this genre, quickly taking control of the world scene until today, where it is one of the dominant genres .

Music is the way to name the different musical genres that, being able to use classical or acoustic musical instruments, accompany their sound with electronic touches, therefore, it has its origin together with the appearance of the first synthesizers.

The Various Types Of Music And The Various Styles Of Music

In the academic world, musical genres are a way to sort out different types of music according to certain criteria. These works’ instrumentation and utility are assessed.

Other criteria, such as cultural specificities, the historical-geographical environment, and design, are added later on. […] The classification divides musical styles based on whether they are vocal or instrumental, as well as on the piece’s intended meaning.

Different Types Of Music

To begin, here are some examples of musical styles.

A Selection Of Classical Compositions

Classical music can be defined as a collection of works, often religious in nature, that were performed in opera houses, concert halls, royal ballrooms, churches, and cathedrals throughout ancient Western Europe, accompanied by their scores. It includes everything from Mozart’s Requiem to Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.

Classical music’s roots are obscured by song and mediaeval music, which encompass a wide range of registers from opera to symphony orchestra to soloists to choral music and everything in between… Topping out in the mid-to-late 18th century, reaching a peak in both quantity and quality that reflects artistic currents from Renaissance to Baroque to Romantic to classical schools. This reflects the highest points in art history.

The majority of works now considered to be classical have a strong connection to popular music of the time and the region in which they were first performed. In fact, until very recently, there was no distinction between popular music and classical music, so everything was considered popular music.

Blues

When it comes to sound, blues music is distinguished by a style that hasn’t changed much since its inception, while also upholding its tradition and expressing itself through its basic composition, three chords, and forward-looking sequences, not to mention improvisations.

In early 19th-century African American and African labour camps, the blues is a painful song. The songs were passed down orally from one worker to the next, from one field to the next, and they developed a distinctive style that rivalled American folklore in quality and variety.

The earliest Blues recordings date back to the turn of the 20th century, and feature a much more basic sound than modern blues, such as acoustic guitar or piano. After that, in the decade of the 1940s, Blues-influenced musical characteristics began to emerge on the scene, bringing it closer to Jazz.

Country

While it originated in the rural areas of the southern United States, country music is influenced by local customs and traditions. It also shares its theme with other musical styles such as the Blues and Rock ‘n’ Roll.

At its core, country music is a simple style, with most songs centering on three distinct elements. Despite the ease of composition, a wide range of genres can be accommodated. From hard-driving Honky Tonk to other genres like Western Jazz, there’s something for everyone.

The chords on the guitar and violin in country music were simple at first. Throughout the genre’s growth and spread, violins have played a central role, and they remain an important part of what makes Country music unique, as they convey the genre’s message and way of thinking through their sound. Hokum to Bakersfield, from the Honky Tonk to Western Swing Jazz to Countrypolitan…

A variety of musical genres, such as blues, gospel, or the music of European or African American immigrants settled in North America, gave rise to country.

Does Music Influence Our Behavior?

Music can affect how we behave, often without us noticing. A while ago it was even in the news that certain types of music, such as hardhouse and heavy metal, would cause criminal behavior. This later turned out to be a misunderstanding : the researchers discovered that young people with a certain taste in music are on average slightly more likely to engage in criminal activities, but that does not mean that music is the cause of that criminal behaviour.

Still, to some degree, music influences what we do. Marketing agencies are making a huge study of how music can influence the purchasing behavior of consumers. If a store plays background music that matches the image of the business, customers are more likely to buy something. And also in catering establishments, the music is often carefully selected, everything to ensure that the consumer feels at ease. 

But also to achieve the opposite effect – scaring people away – music can be very useful. Around some schools and train stations, annoying music should cause loiterers to seek refuge elsewhere.

Does Music Make You Smarter?

Music lessons are good for brain development, we know from research. In children who learn to play a musical instrument, the connection between the left and right hemispheres is strengthened. This allows the hemispheres of the brain to communicate better with each other during their development, which is important, for example, for coordinating behavior and emotions.

Moreover, young people who play a musical instrument have stronger connections between different language areas in the brain. This allows them to better distinguish the subtle sound differences of spoken language from each other. Making music therefore stimulates language skills . 

The positive effects of making music do not only apply to children and young people, adults also benefit greatly from making music. For example, people who regularly play an instrument are more creative than others. And who takes music lessons at a later age trains his prefrontal cortex and keeps his memory and problem-solving ability up to date. 

You also sometimes hear that listening to classical music strengthens your cognitive functions. It would even give you a higher IQ, a study from 1993 suggests. But, unfortunately for all enthusiasts: after further research, it appears that the so-called Mozart effect does not exist after all . If you want to become smarter, it is therefore better to make music yourself instead of listening to it.

Music therapy can also offer a solution for people with, for example, autism, war trauma or an intellectual disability. This form of therapy is sometimes still laughed at, but many people benefit from it. Music can often find a way around the brain, explains Jaschke. “If the connection between brain areas A and B is no longer so good, the music still manages to find a way somewhere.” 

Dimo has autism and loves music. Music therapy helps him make better contact. 

This shortcut in the brain also works for many people with memory problems, such as dementia. Where they sometimes do not or hardly succeed in talking, singing is often still effortless. Singer Maartje de Lint therefore sings together with people with dementia and their loved ones or carers.

Concert

Still, to some degree, music influences what we do. Marketing agencies are making a huge study of how music can influence the purchasing behavior of consumers. If a store plays background music that matches the image of the business, customers are more likely to buy something. And also in catering establishments, the music is often carefully selected, everything to ensure that the consumer feels at ease. 

But also to achieve the opposite effect – scaring people away – music can be very useful. Around some schools and train stations, annoying music should cause loiterers to seek refuge elsewhere.

What Does Music Do To Us?

Music has a huge impact on our brains, emotions and behaviour. It activates our brain and can even ease physical pain. How can we apply these effects in healthcare? And does music make us smarter?

What Happens In Your Brain When You Listen To Music?

One loves Bach, the other prefers to go wild on house or rap. Everyone has their own preference, but music leaves few people cold. It makes you happy, or on the contrary, makes you feel like dancing. How come these sounds can enchant us so much? 

Music activates the entire brain, says neuropsychologist Erik Scherder. When we listen to music, all kinds of different brain areas become active at the same time. For example, music stimulates the motor areas, which provide that irresistible urge to dance.

Areas of the brain that deal with emotion are also activated by music. It is therefore not surprising that a piece of music can touch you in such a way. And if you listen to music you like, your brain produces dopamine, the same substance that is released when you eat something delicious or when you are in love. That in turn makes for a blissful feeling.

When we make music together, for example by singing together, our brain produces another fine substance: oxytocin. That ‘love hormone’ makes us feel connected to others. Music creates a feeling of togetherness.

Does Music Make You Smarter?

Music lessons are good for brain development, we know from research. In children who learn to play a musical instrument, the connection between the left and right hemispheres is strengthened. This allows the hemispheres of the brain to communicate better with each other during their development, which is important, for example, for coordinating behavior and emotions.

Music Enriches The Brain

Moreover, young people who play a musical instrument have stronger connections between different language areas in the brain. This allows them to better distinguish the subtle sound differences of spoken language from each other. Making music therefore stimulates language skills . 

How Can We Use Music In Healthcare?

Music has a healing effect: it can reduce stress and ease pain. This makes it potentially an effective, safe and inexpensive remedy for all kinds of complaints. The positive effects of music seem to already exist in very young patients. 

Music therapy can also offer a solution for people with, for example, autism, war trauma or an intellectual disability. This form of therapy is sometimes still laughed at, but many people benefit from it. Music can often find a way around the brain, explains Jaschke. “If the connection between brain areas A and B is no longer so good, the music still manages to find a way somewhere.” 

This shortcut in the brain also works for many people with memory problems, such as dementia. Where they sometimes do not or hardly succeed in talking, singing is often still effortless. Singer Maartje de Lint therefore sings together with people with dementia and their loved ones or carers.

Music In The Brain

Music has been the universal language of man throughout history. A single song is able to arouse feelings, move hearts and soothe thoughts. How does this happen in the brain?

Music has been the universal language of man throughout history. A single song is able to arouse feelings, move hearts and soothe thoughts. How does this happen in the brain?

My moods are as fickle as the Dutch weather—and for every emotion, from dizzying euphoria to gloomy sadness, I have a diverse selection of music to accompany this daily internal struggle. This universal link between music and emotion has long been widely accepted in both society and science. Much research into this focuses on what happens in the brain when you listen to music. We know that music elicits feelings and physiological responses that can be measured at the level of the molecule to the brain.

A recent study on the neurochemical underpinnings of music perception found that it involves activity in the same brain networks as food, drugs, and sexual satisfaction ( note : This does not mean that music is the same as sex and drugs). In these networks there is a lot of activity of dopamine and opiates that are produced naturally in your body. Natural opiates, produced in the brain and structurally similar to opiates like heroin, are crucial for experiencing both positive and negative emotions with music. These chemicals are also involved in the pleasure we experience when we eat sugary foods, or in activities such as sex and gambling.

But what about music triggers that emotional response? Psychologists suspect that a strong response to music can result from unexpected changes in musical aspects (eg, intensity and tempo) that increase tension and anticipation. A study of those musical aspects and emotional responses used electroencephalography (EEG) to record patterns in brain waves as subjects listened to different types of music. The researchers collected both subjective and physiological measures of the emotions experienced and found that a change in music was followed by a shift in asymmetric brain activity. In other words, brain activity in differentfrontal brain areas either increased or decreased to varying degrees during certain periods in the music (eg, start of a new motif, a change of instrument, changes in basic aspects such as pitch, dynamics or ‘texture’). This suggests that a change in music is a fundamental trigger of emotional responses while listening.

Other brain studies show that the right (non-dominant) hemisphere is important for appreciating various aspects of music. Brain damage leads to a reduction in the appreciation of pitch, timbre and rhythm. Another study demonstrated with positron emission tomography (PET) that especially the right hemisphere becomes active while listening to music; even if you imagine music instead of actually listening there is (partial) activation of those same brain areas. However, this should not be interpreted as evidence for simple left-right brain functionality (which is absolutely not the case)!

There is still much to discover about how a cleverly strung chain of nuts affects the brain. This complex and obscure link between ‘music & mind’ is currently used in various intervention therapies, from autism to depression, ADHD, and so on. The future of music in neuroscience is promising—imagine how we could use it even more if we knew just a little more.